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Patio Building
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Post-conflict cities like LUANDA are facing tremendous urban pressure, due to rural exodus running from war and now to the employment opportunities. The result is a rapid and uncontrolled urbanization (5%), creating a sprawl and very dense SLUMS (70% of the territory). The slums in suburbs areas continue to become more chaotic and dense, it is necessary to find a medium term strategy to revert this scenario, with a creation of “Urban Cells” strategically well placed that gradually will “contaminate” the slums. That “Urban Cell” is conjunction of Basic infrastructure, Green areas, Facilities and Low rise High Density Social Housing – Patio Building. The concept of Patio Building is a necessity of response for a High Density Social Housing, from an analysis and interpretation of Luanda Slums Habitat, characterized by strong social life outside the house, in courtyards and alleyways, generating important neighborhood relationship as an extended family. Normally the access to the dwellings in Luanda slums is made through the patio, which provides a safety idea. This reality has been assumed in this project where all the flats are accessed through the Patio connected to a generous width pathways. It allows recreate the lifestyle at ground floor level. The ground floor level courtyard will have a more flexible use, which may result from various social activities and recreation. The typology built in height (maximum 5 floors, dispensing the need for lift ) results in a more economic solution than the one-story typology with yard due to rationalization and optimization of the infrastructure. It was considered a modular structure that enables greater speed in the construction process, both in the aspects of structural (pillars and slabs) or the patterning and standardization of construction elements (pre molded light concrete panels , doors and windows). However that does not constitute a monotony factor, but rather allows flexibility, not only in formal composition as well as an eventual possibility for occupation of spaces in shed of self construction in height, creating open spaces with minimal infrastructure (kitchen and sanitary core) that could be further subdivided according to income and family needs. The following sustainability factors were considered: – Ensure cross ventilation through the courtyards and thermal insulation; – Reduction of direct sunlight predicting the future application shading devices (brise-soleil); – Reuse of rainwater through the courtyard (especially for irrigation and cleaning). – Integration of green spaces to promote internal and external environmental quality (both in the building patios and in the central square). -Implementation of constructive solutions based on recycling the rubble of demolition, creating aerated concrete panels, minimizing the environmental impacts of the deposit of the debris.
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